Classification of drugs on the basis of mechanism of action, Spectrum of activity and Type of action

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Classification on the basis of Mechanism of action

Inhibit cell wall synthesis: Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Cycloserine, Vancomycin, Bacitracin.

Cause leakage from cell membranes: Polypeptides—Polymyxins, Colistin, Bacitracin.

Inhibit protein synthesis: Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Linezolid.

Cause misreading of m-RNA code and affect permeability: Aminoglycosides—Streptomycin, Gentamicin, etc.

Inhibit DNA gyrase: Fluoroquinolones—Ciprofloxacin, etc.

Interfere with DNA function: Rifampin, Metronidazole.

Interfere with intermediary metabolism: Sulfonamides, Sulfones, PAS, Trimethoprim, Ethambutol

 

Classification according to spectrum of activity

Narrow spectrum 

Penicillin G

Streptomycin

Erythromycin

 

Broad spectrum

Tetracyclines

Chloramphenicol

 

Intermediate spectrum

Aminopenicillins

Cephalosporins (2nd/3rd Gen)

Fluoroquinolones

Newer macrolides

 

Classification according to type of action

Primarily bacteriostatic

Sulfonamides

Ethambutol

Tetracyclines

Clindamycin

Chloramphenicol

Linezolid

Erythromycin

Primarily bactericidal

Penicillins

Aminoglycosides

Polypeptides

Rifampin

Cotrimoxazole

Isoniazid

Cephalosporins

Vancomycin

Nalidixic acid

Ciprofloxacin

Metronidazole

Pyrazinamide

 

 

 

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